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The Technical Aspects,Terms And Rules of Ghazal Writing.....

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Diya
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The Technical Aspects,Terms And Rules of Ghazal Writing.....

Post by Diya on Thu Jun 04, 2009 1:21 pm

Dear Readers.....

I'm writing this article for people who has always wondered about how a Ghazal is written.
Who are keen to know the technical side of Ghazal writing

Note that i'm only trying to pass this information to you based on what i had been taught.

What is a Ghazal...?
A Ghazal is a combination of :-

1.Beher (Meter
2.Radeef
3.Kafiya
4.Matla
5.Maktaa

1. What is Beher (Meter) ...?

Beher is the rhythm of a sheyr which compliments the connecting misra's (lines) of a ghazal...all the misra's in a sher and all the sheyrs in a ghazal has to follow the same beher. There are many different beher's and it demands serious studies to be understood.Apart from those set beher's a shayar can also creat his own beher as long as the sheyr is easy to recite and can be pronounced in rhythm n match the "wazan" of the ghazal..


example:-

GalGaGa GalGaGa GalGa 2122 2122 212
maut jindaa chhoDne waalii nahin
is balaa se koi ghar khaali nahin

2.What is Radeef...?

ik muHabbat kee naz^ar bhee dam-e-bedaad rahe
keejiYe z^ulm woh mujh par keh mujhe yaad rahe!

Radeef is the word(s) which ends the first two misra's and the second misra of every sheyr in a Ghazal.it is not necessary to use radeef in all the Ghazals...such Ghazals are called "gair-muraddaf" ghazals...but this is not what tradition allows...!!

Example of a Ghazal with radeef and kafiya :- (Abdul Hameed "adam")

phuuloN kii aarazuu meN baDe zaKhm khaaye haiN
lekin chaman ke Khaar bhii ab tak paraaye haiN

us par haraam hai Gam-e-dauraaN kii talKhiyaaN
jiske nasiib meN terii zulfoN ke saaye haiN


mahashar meN le gaii thii tabiyat kii saadagii
lekin baDe Khuluus se ham lauT aaye haiN


aayaa huuN yaad baad-e-fanaa unako bhii 'Adam'
kyaa jald mere siikh pe imaan laaye haiN


***here.."haiN" is the radeef of this Ghazal***




ai maigusaaro savere savere
Kharaabaat ke gird phere pe phere

Abdul Hameed "adam")

here....radeef is missing...as last words of the sheyr are not same so its a "Ghair-muraddaf" ghazal...so radeef is that exact word or words that ends the first two lines and every second line of a ghazal...!!

3. What is Kafiya...?

Kafiya is that common sounding word that's used before "radeef"...for example in first ghazal mentioned above "khaaye".."paraaye"...."laaye" is the kafiya or should is say "aaye" is the kafiya because "aaye" is the sound that gives "wazan" to the radeef of the ghazal.

4.What is Matla...?

The very first sheyr or the first two misra's of a ghazal where radeef is used in both misra's is the "Matla" of a ghazal...!!

for example...

saaGar se lab lagaa ke bahut Khush hai zindagii
sahan-e-chaman meN aake bahut Khush hai zindagii


Matla is very necessary for the weight of a ghazal because the whole ghazal depends on kafiya and radeef used in the Matla.

5.What is Maktaa

Maktaa is the last sheyr of a ghazal where shayar use his "takhhallus" to leave his signature on his composition...A poet rather not have a maktaa rather than having a meaningless maktaa...its one of those finer points of shayri where shayar can express himself or his feelings or talk about anything using the rhythm of the ghazal...!!

example... ( Shakeel Badayuni ) :-

Khush huuN ki meraa husn-e-talab kaam to aayaa
Khaalii hii sahii merii taraf jaam to aayaa

log un se ye kahate haiN ki kitane haiN "Shakeel" aap
is husn ke sadaqe meN meraa naam to aayaa


These are just the basic points that someone needs to look at before writing or understanding a ghazal...if anyone have any questions at all..i'll be overwhelmed to answer...i have an advice for shayar's who has just begun to write and are serious about learning shayri....you NEED to find an ustad who can guide you...find someone whom you can show your compositons...who can explain each term step by step and seek an advice..coz there's a lot more...A LOT MORE..in shayri than you can imagine...!!

I'll try to post more articles like this...its an attempt to bring all shayri lovers more closer to the real picture of shayri

thanx

-Diya
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Re: The Technical Aspects,Terms And Rules of Ghazal Writing.....

Post by Guest on Thu Jun 04, 2009 4:01 pm

Thanx a lodz diya 4 this post, now people like me can know the difference between gazal n ashars n shers... Thums up hoping this info will help serious people out there... looking forward to great contributions from our valuable frenz... a +K for ur valuable contribution....

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nazm aur ghazal meN farQ

Post by Diya on Thu Jun 04, 2009 4:09 pm

nazm aur ghazal meN farQ


Ghazal :- Ghazal ke lughvi maa'ni haiN "a'urtoN ke saath baat cheet aur i'shQ baazi (shaa'iri )."
who Sanaf-sukhn (kind of speech) jis meN a'moman"(generally) Husno-i'shQ , viSaal-o-firaaQ , sharaab-o-shabaab aur tasavuf-o-ma'rfat (mysticism) waghera ki baatieN kahi jaaieN
lakin ghazal is Had bandi ki paband nahieN rahi , ab is meN har Qisam ke mouZooa'at-o-masail nazm kiye jaate haiN , is ka her she'r a'moman (generally) mukhtalif maZmoon(subject) per mushtamil hota hai , iska pehla she'r matla' kehlaata hai , jis ke donoN miSre'y hum radeef hum Qaafiaa hote haiN , baaQi asha'ar ke misra'-e-caani meN Qaafia radeef hota hai aakhri she'r jis meN shaa'ir ka takhalus ho maQta' kehlaata hai , sub se ache she'r ko "shah bait" kehte haiN
ghazal kaa unwaan naheeN hotaa .

Nazm:- nazm ke lughvi maa'ni haiN "Peerona"
nazm ko aik hee mazmoon (subject) per bayaan kiyaa jaataa hai. is kaa har sher ek doosre se juRaa hotaa hai aur sab mil kar ek hee mazmoon (subject) bayaan karte hain aur nazm kaa ek unwaan hotaa hai.
Nazm meN matle' maQte' kee koi pabandee naheeN hotee


Nazm ki kismeN paai jaati haiN
1: ghazal numaa nazm (who nazm jis meN ghazal jese uSooloN ko lazim rakha jaaey
2: azaad nazm (woh kalam-e-mozoN jis meN Qaafia aur radeef na hoN lakin beHr ho)
3;-kaalee naz^m
4;-nacree naz^m



1 paaband naz^m

saare jahaaN se achh`aa HindostaaN hamaaraa
ham bulbuleN haiN us kee yeh gulsitaaN hamaaraa
parbat voh sab se ooNchaa, hamsaayah aasmaaN kaa
voh santaree hamaaraa, voh paasbaaN hamaaraa
godee meN kh`eltee haiN us kee hazaaroN nadiyaaN
gulshan hai jis ke dam se rashk-e-jinaaN hamaaraa
Iqbal! koyee meHram apnaa naheeN jahaaN meN
ma'loom kyaa kisee ko dard-e-nihaaN hamaaraa (Iqbal)

2: aazaad naz^m

baazee badne se pehle
us ne ek qasam kh`aayee th`ee
maiN ne us kaa maan rakh`aa
so har baazee meN voh jeetaa
lekin us ko patah naheeN th`aa
ham donoN meN jeetaa kaun! (Nayyar Jahan)

3: kaalee naz^m

kitnee baar huwaa hai pehle
ab bh`ee hotaa hai
aag meN jal kar mar jaanaa
veHshat kaa ik nayaa tareeqah
ek anokh`aa kartab hai
dekh`ne vaale saare veHshee Khush hote haiN
nannhe nannhe bachchoN ke naazuk naazuk dil
Khauf se gh`abraa kar ro paRte haiN
yeh manz^ar dekh` ke t^aa,ir uR jaate haiN
Sirf aag bujh`aane vaale afsar
Khaamoshee se chup chup kh`aRe huwe haiN
TV par jalte logoN kee tasveereN
ek nayaa darpan ban kar
aaNkh`oN meN aaNsoo ban kar jh`ilmil kartee haiN
meree kitnee Khwaahish hai
maiN bh`ee ik shab apnee saaree kitaaboN meN
jaltaa- Khaak meN raakh` to mil jaatee
shaayad yeh meree Khwaahish pooree hogee! (Baqar Mehdi)

4: nacree naz^m

agar kuch` marmareeN lamHe
tumhaare haath` aa jaaYeN
to chupke se
hath`elee par aNdh`eree shab kee
mehNdee chaaNdnee kee tum sajaa denaa
keh is be-mehr haNgaamoN kee dunyaa meN
azal se
an-ginat SadiyoN kee boseedah hath`eliyoN par
koyee jugnoo naheeN chamkaa
koyee taara naheeN damkaa
hameshah yaad rakh`naa
sail-e-tez-o-tuNd ke dh`aare meN
akcar
kaaGhazee kashtee bh`ee daryaa paar kartee hai
tumheN kuch` kar dikh`aanaa hai (Shaheen Badr)


thanx
-Diya

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Re: The Technical Aspects,Terms And Rules of Ghazal Writing.....

Post by SourabhBasak on Fri Jun 05, 2009 12:04 pm

Valuable information Diya..... onik ra ei information gulo jane na..... +k eto valuable post er jonno


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Re: The Technical Aspects,Terms And Rules of Ghazal Writing.....

Post by kaash on Sun Jan 09, 2011 5:01 pm

bahut hi achi informations di hain aapne Diya ji,its really nice flowers

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